Hyperesthesia or increased sensitivity of teeth

Hyperesthesia or increased sensitivity of teeth

If cold water, ice cream, hot tea, or sour, sugary foods cause severe pain in teeth and discomfort in the mouth, it is necessary to understand these symptoms and find ways to solve the problem. Possibly the problem is the increased sensitivity of the enamel of the teeth (dental hyperesthesia).

This is a quite common painful condition of the teeth, which creates discomfort in the oral cavity and leads to a dysfunction of full-fledged eating or articulation. The tooth enamel can react painfully to any stimuli.

Increased sensitivity of teeth is not a new problem, as it was noted for more than 100 years. According to WHO[1] survey, problem of dental hyperesthesia is growing every year.

If we consider the localization of increased teeth sensitivity, the first place take canines, then second premolars and molars. The area of ​​the tooth neck is almost always affected.

Dental hyperesthesia is characterized by short-term acute pain resulting from the response of dentin to temperature, tactile and chemical irritants.

The following factors influence the occurrence of tooth hypersensitivity:

  • decrease in the protective properties of enamel, as a result exposure of dentin. That is, the enamel, due to its destruction, opens up the access of irritants to dentin.
  • increased opening of dentinal tubules. Unprotected and open dentinal tubules are conductors through which any irritant passes. This condition can result from carious and non-carious tooth lesions (cracks, erasure, erosion, wedge-shaped enamel defect)
  • complications after treatment and teeth whitening
  • periodontal tissue diseases
  • violation of occlusion (misalignment of teeth)
  • improper oral hygiene (incorrect brushing technique, using whitening toothpastes on an ongoing basis), hard bristled toothbrushes.
Hyperesthesia or increased sensitivity of teeth

The optimal method for the treatment of dental hyperesthesia is aimed at cupping the hydrodynamic mechanism, which is a decrease in the reaction of dental fluid to external stimuli and closure of dentinal tubules. As a result, the enamel of the teeth becomes stronger, the influence of irritants decreases.

In Н-clinic, firstly, diagnoses the state of the oral cavity and determine the cause of the increased sensitivity of the teeth, and also individually select the tactics of treatment.

As a rule, varnishes, gels, special sealants are used to close the dentinal tubules. To maintain and enhance professional treatment, supporting dental care at home is prescribed, recommending special toothpastes that reduce the volume of dentin micropores by increasing the mineralization of hard tooth tissues.

Toothpastes and increased sensitivity of teeth

There are many types of toothpaste nowadays. Manufacturers promise to reduce sensitivity or even completely cure. However, a store consultant or the seller himself is unlikely to be able to choose a toothpaste taking into account the direct cause of the disease.

A dentist with sufficient experience in the treatment of dental hyperesthesia should choose the appropriate toothpaste.

It should be remembered that all toothpastes are divided into two groups: therapeutic and therapeutic-prevention.

Each of these groups has its own indications and contraindications for usage.

Indications for toothpastes that desensitize:

  • as a symptomatic remedy for non-carious lesions
  • recessions of the gums (exposure of the necks of the teeth in diseases of periodontal tissues).

Usually, for the treatment of hyperesthesia at home, toothpastes or gels that contain potassium citrate, strontium chloride and fluoride compounds are used.

Potassium ions defund through the dentinal tubules, depolarize nerve endings and block the transmission of pain impulses, create a depot around the nerve, protecting it from irritants.

Strontium chloride helps to improve the structure of tooth enamel and stimulates the production of replacement dentin, which helps to reduce tooth sensitivity.

The action of fluoride ions is based on the partial closure of the dentinal tubules, as a result of which their diameter becomes smaller, the response to stimuli decreases and the enamel is strengthened.

However, it should be remembered that toothpaste in most cases requires systematic and long-term use to achieve a therapeutic effect.

Hygienic care of the oral cavity should be purely individual and, at the same time, it does not replace, but only complements the therapeutic interventions of the dentist.

If you do not ignore the problem of tooth sensitivity and visit your dentist on time, then the unpleasant feelings can only be a normal temporary discomfort.

Take care of your teeth and do not pass sentence for your enamel.

Authors: Yulia Kovalenko, Olga Reshetnyak

[1] Arends J., Duschner H., Ruben J. L. Penetration of varnishes into demineralized root sentinel in vitro // Caries Res.— V.31.